So After a long hiatus I am back and hopefully for the sustained rush to the end of this project and the start of others. I can say that while personal events have kept me from completing this project within it’s initial time-span, I have a greater deal of respect for people who have read the whole thing inside of a year.
I plan on doing some discussion of the entire ‘Old Testament’ when I hit it’s end, but already I see that plenty of these books end up sounding repetitious on first reading.
So the Book of Jeremiah. Unlike some of the other books of the bible, whom we have to place in history by supposition or comparison with other texts with known dates, we can discern the time-period. Jeremiah began his mission according to the text, during the Reign of King Josiah of Judah, around 627 BCE, until King Zedekiah, around 586 BCE. This is a period that starts with Judah’s subjugation by the Egyptians, followed by the Babylonians defeating both the Assyrian s and the Egyptians to become Judah’s overlord. Subjugated beneath the Babylonian Empire, Judah rebelled several times until it’s elite were exiled to Babylon and it became a province of the Babylonian empire. This is a story we’ve heard before, and much of the text of the bible was composed during this period or at least formalized there-after. We can surmise, given the specifics, at Jeremiah being a real person, a real prophet, who left behind actual words. What within the text is actually his words though is harder to determine. We know for certain that parts of the text were edited by various authors over the course of the following centuries and it’s unlikely it gained it’s final form until the 2nd century BCE, nearly four hundred years after the events in question happened.
There are two extant versions of the text itself; one of Greek, one of Hebrew. The later is shorter, but both are contained within the Dead Sea Scrolls. There is some scholarly disagreement on the nature of these two versions, but what I’ve read seems to indicate that the Greek is probably derived at a later date from the Hebrew. Like all the texts of the bible we are reminded that their transmission, in a time before the printing press, was by manual copying. One must assume by priests, whose historical and vested interests would alter over time. It’s not a question of whether the text is edited, but how much and by whom to what end.
Looking at the text we see an alignment with what has gone before. Prominence is played onto the Covenant between God and the people of Judah. The idea being that there is a contract between the people and God. Like a traditional marriage, where-in the Husband is above the Wife, the people are beneath god and thus correction, judgement and punishment is inevitable because of the peoples betrayal of the covenant. The deal was struck, one side broke the dead, Gods punishment is essentially just.
This is a running theme we see again and again in the Deuteronomic portions of the bible. The fate that befalls the nations of Israel and Judah being divine justice for the falling from the path.
Beyond descriptions of the events surrounding the prophets life, and the descriptions of the fate already befallen, we have actual prophecies. These are less specific, though some might be taken as that, and more repetitions on a theme. This bad thing will happen and than this bad thing, and these things will be the result of the broken covenant. God will use the Babylonians as an instrument of his judgement but than he will bring low the Babylonians themselves and so forth. The Prophecies both explain the present circumstances of the people, but also point them towards a triumphant future.
Obviously this text holds importance in both Jewish and Christian history. Besides the actual historical elements, the text frames what will be the various struggles of the Jewish people even after the Captivity is over. After the destruction of the second temple during the Roman era it would continue as explanation for the state of the Jewish people and part of the promise of the future. It could also be held as prophecy fulfilled. God promised Jeremiah that Babylon would be brought low, and look it was. Jeremiah as a figure is thus referenced elsewhere.
To Christians Jeremiah is a prophet foretelling the coming of Jesus. The idea that god would forge a new covenant fits into the Christian world-view, with the people of the word filling in for the people of Judah, and Jesus new covenant filling in for the obedience that the people in the ‘New Kingdom’ will show. What was probably than a literal, somewhat political text initially, with a spiritual dimensions, gains express and complete spiritual dimensions by later peoples. The ‘New Kingdom’ becomes not a literal kingdom but an imagine future Utopia. Jeremiah is not the first, nor will he be the last of the Old Jewish prophets to be put to use by later theologians.
That’s it for Jeremiah. Next it’s on to the fore-heads of ashes and weeping with Lamentations.