A review of the Historical aspect of the Book of Habakkuk will be short and sweet because there just isn’t much. We have no idea who Habakkuk was, and there isn’t any agreement on his identity. Placing the work historically is difficult; we know it’s been canonical for a long time as there are examples as part of the Dead sea scrolls, but other than that only vague guesses serve us. A mention of the Chaldean’s suggests something near the end of the 7th century, but no more helps us.
The theme and tenor of this book are again, similar to what has come before. Habakkuk begs god for answers, specifically to the question of how he can permit the Chaldean’s(the Babylonians) to attack his chosen people. The answer is one we have heard before; the Chaldeans’ are an instrument of gods Justice for the iniquity of the Israelites. This does have another interesting theme, however; unlike some of the other works, in which the foreign invaders are merely an instrument of Gods will, a tool like a Sword or Hammer, in Habakkuk, they are identified as people who will themselves be judged. The Chaldeans are themselves subject to Gods judgement, and more the harshly. This itself is a paradox similar to the one in Exodus wherein God ‘hardens Pharaoh’s heart’. One can see in it future theological disputations. Do the Chaldeans have free will? Is this merely an example of Gods perfect knowledge of the Future? What does it mean to be punished for something that is apparently Gods will?
The book ends with Habakkuk coming to accept God’s divine will. The text is an exhortation towards faith. This is probably why it is quoted later by early Church fathers. It will appear again in the Epistles apparently, but that gets way ahead of ourselves. One can readily see how this text would be useful for both Christianity in broad terms and Protestantism in particular. There is a long history of the idea of enduring through prosecution for your faith in Christianity. First beneath the Romans, and later in regards to various other authorities. Be it in the ‘Holy Wars’ of the 16th and 17th Centuries or other persecutions that arose even after the peace of Wallphalia.
Zephaniah we have a better time placing in history. We only have his own avowed text, but that text informs us that Zephaniah was a Great-Great Grandson of King Hezekiah of Judah, the 13th king of Judah according to the bible. We know he prophecized during the era of King Josiah of Judah, placing him between 641 and 610 BCE, and also making him contemporary with Jeremiah.
Zephaniah as a prophet continues similar themes we have seen before; God will visit destruction upon Judah in general and Jerusalem in particular. Like Habakkuk, it places judgement over others besides the Israelites, inferring a world-wide judgement by God. There is a bit of a focus on idolatry and degeneracy in religious life, but otherwise, it’s something we’ve seen time and again. The prophecies also foretell of a union of the world beneath a Messianic kingdom, a restoration. Thus again the theme; Punishment for failure to hold to God, followed by a promise of redemption.
So of the Minor prophets, we have Hagai, Zechariah, and Malachi. I may try and do all three in one post, though it will probably make for a bit of a long one, just to finally finish off the Tanakh/Old Testament. I may then do a bit of a looking back before going right into the Gospels. Till then.